In Lesbos, the third largest island in Greece, there is a huge variety of flora and fauna that would be difficult to be recorded completely even in a skilled and multi-page writing.
We briefly mention the following:
The southeastern part of the island is dominated by vast olive groves where there are mostly varieties of the adramytini and the truncated olive trees. On the island, there are extensive forests of trachea pine trees. Sporadically mainly in Agiasos and Gera some black pine trees appear.
Large pasture lands are mainly in the North and East part.
It must be emphasized that in forests, olive groves and plains, one can find in the right season many mushrooms with predominant of incredible taste the pefkiti or Amanitis (Lactarius deliciosus).
Aromatic herbs of all kinds such as oregano, savoury, thyme, sage, mountain tea (bitonikas or Sideritis), lavender, peppermint, spearmint, lime leaves, marjoram, lemongrass etc. are in abundance on the island. Here one can find capers and samphire for making pickles.
There is a variety of wild edible herbs and medicinal plants. The wildflowers of Lesvos have been an inspiration for painters, photographers, poets and also the subject of studies by scientific experts and naturalists.
Fodder plants of all kinds contribute to the unique flavour of dairy products and meat of the island.
An extensive number of trees and bushes complete the flora of Lesvos.
In Lesbos exists the unique squirrel in Greece (sciurus anomalus), known to locals as Galia.
Weasels, polecats, foxes, hares, hedgehogs, bats, all kinds of mice and wild rabbits that we find around the rocky islets of the island compose the population of mammalian fauna.
In recent years, wild boars to a large extent, as well as roe deer and deer, live and breed on the island,
We also mention the existence of enraged goats on the Mount in Tsilia of Gera, in the hills above Larso, and on the mountains of Gera and Agiasos. These animals are literally unapproachable and with the behaviour of a wild goat.
In the wetlands of the island, there are numerous bird fauna that attracts their scientists and observers
In the wetland of Larsos the existence of the otter (lutra lutra) is certain.
In the above wetlands and rivers of the island, there are still freshwater fish, crabs, eels, and small shrimp species.
In the Inland live a great variety of reptiles, terrestrial and amphibious turtles and the unique in Greece «Ottoman viper». The birds and insects of Lesvos are impossible to be listed in a few pages. There are many endemic and migratory birds, some of them extremely rare, such as the Rock Nuthatch.
Famous are the fish of Mytilene at the top being the famous sardines, the famous red mullet, bogue, black sea bream etc. Literally, the variety of fish and the shellfish of Lesvos is endless, such as horse mussels, mussels, cockles, scallops, pen shells, sea urchins, ark shells, clams, date shells (glans), purple-mouthed shell (purpura), limpets. Lobsters, crabs, crayfish, shrimps, octopus, cuttlefish, squid (Calamari), sea anemones (with the local name ‘kolyfades «) convince even the most sceptical about the marine wealth of the island. Those who love the sea regularly will surely have seen every kind of dolphins, sharks, dogfish, seals, sea turtles, stingrays and generally whatever exists in the Mediterranean waters.